Wine 101: What is Wine?

Learn the science behind your favorite bottle



We all love wine, but do we really understand what wine is? Sure, in its purest form, it’s grape juice gone “bad," but there are additional elements in even the simplest of wines. With today's winemaking tools, you can be sure there's so much more to a bottle than fruit and time. While enjoying a bottle of wine can be simple, understanding wine (good wine, at least) can be quite complex. Today, I want to get the ball rolling on a series of educational emails that will focus on all aspects of wine appreciation, beginning with the basics of winemaking, and then moving along to understanding specific wines and wine-producing regions.

At its core, wine is composed of water, alcohol, aromatic compounds, acids, and tannins. In this overview, we’ll take a look at what everything is and where it might come from. You might be surprised at some of the answers.

1.) Grapes

Well, duh. Of course wines start with grapes, some even end with grapes, since the yeast needed to convert the grapes' sugar to alcohol is frequently found lurking on the skin of each berry. White grapes make white wines -- of course, white grapes are usually green or yellow, and some are even pink or red.  Extremely few grapes actually have red flesh, so the color of the grape refers to its skin color. You can make white wines from red grapes, as well as Rose and red wine, of course.

2.) Yeast

The yeast cells turn delicious, sweet grape juice into wine. They eat sugar and produce alcohol as a by-product. Many vineyards like to use indigenous yeasts -- those found on the grapeskins themselves -- as each vintage can bring a different combination of yeast strains, which may allow for more distinctive and complex wines. Most wineries, though, use cultivated, or commercial yeasts. There is a distinction, however: As some wineries find that a specific yeast that was indigenous to their vines produced a better than average result, the winery may begin to cultivate the yeast.  Most wineries that use truly commercial yeasts use them because they are efficient and tolerant of high-alcohol environments (aka the Achilles' heel of many indigenous yeasts; it can lead to what are known as stuck, or incomplete fermentations.)

3.) Acid

Acid is the part of wine that makes you smack your lips and leaves your mouth watering. It’s a vital component of deliciousness in wine. Acid is naturally occurring in all fruit, and we know from making lemonade that there is a subjectively ideal balance that can be achieved between sweetness and acidity. Even in a dry wine there are flavors that we can perceive as sweet (alcohol also can give an impression of sweetness), so having the right amount of acid in a wine is crucial. Grapes are born with primarily hard Malic and Tartaric acids, though many whites and most reds go through a secondary, bacterial fermentation (as opposed to yeast-driven) that converts the acid of green apples (Malic acid) to the softer acid of fermented dairy products such as yogurt (lactic acid). As grapes ripen, sugars increase and acids tend to decrease, so some winemakers routinely add additional acid to their wines. The most common acids used in acidification are Tartaric acid, Malic acid and citric acid. Some wines are also de-acidified by adding specific salts that can precipitate out tartaric acids.

4.) Tannins

Tannins come from the seeds and skins of grapes -- and stems, too if they’re added into to the fermenting must -- as well as from wooden barrels that can be used to age wines. The tannin in wines acts as a preservative and, along with acidity, is referred to as the structure of a wine. Tannins make your mouth pucker, your gums feel fuzzy, and your mouth feel dry. You can probably see already that having the right balance between drying tannins and mouthwatering acids is pretty important. The tannins in fruit and the tannins from wood are a bit different, but it’s hard to tell them apart and they pretty much do the same thing, so I’ll save that exercise for another time. Tannins can also be added to wines in powder form.

5.) Additives

This is the dirty truth about modern winemaking. There is a laundry list of additives, some with long historical roots, others recent additions to the winemaker’s medicine cabinet, all of which can be used to “improve” wines. Of course you might ask yourself why wines need so much “improving,” since for thousands of years folks have been making some pretty good hootch with just grapes and a bucket, but that’s a discussion for another day.  Here's a brief rundown of what else might be lurking in your next glass of wine.

Enzymes are added to fermenting wine to help prevent the growth of bad yeasts that can cause wine spoilage. There are even enzymes that improve the formation of sediment in young wines, allowing for better filtering, and thus leading to higher yields.

Polysaccharides are added to promote the retention of color, tannin, and flavoring compounds extracted from grape skins.

Gum Arabic is added to wine to lock in the aromatic compounds in a wine, but it also adds a richness to the mouthfeel, which has become its main propose.

Sulfur products are used as a anti-oxidative preservative in wine. These are products that have long histories in winemaking, and are actually one of the wine additives that we’re seeing less, not more, of as winemakers develop a better understanding of what a sufficient dose of SO2 is.

6.) Fining agents

Once upon a time wines were fined (think of it as filtering, but with the filtering drifting down through the wine as opposed to the wine being forced through a physical filter) with ox blood and egg whites. (Learn more about the ancient history of wine in our series on early winemaking practices.)  While egg albumin is still a common fining agent, it has been joined by things like bentonite clay, gelatin, and even silica. There is no actual residue left from proper fining, so don’t look for chunks in your glass (sediment in wines is something entirely different, and we’ll talk about that next time.)

What makes a wine's structure?

Tannins
Tannins come from grape seeds and skins, as well as from the oak barrels used to age wine. They give wine an astringent bite, and protect the fruit from oxygen.

Acid
Acid comes in many forms, but they all help give wine its mouth-watering zing. Red and white wines are sometimes treated differently to achieve proper balance.


Mentioned in this article

Comments

  • Snooth User: pao1x
    142426 1

    Enzymes are used to extract color and tannins, S02 is for preventing spoilage and unwanted yeast growth.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 12:46 PM


  • Snooth User: StevenBabb
    Hand of Snooth
    296258 483

    a great overview... well done....

    Jun 03, 2010 at 1:01 PM


  • Snooth User: SteveKroll
    121363 33

    Overall, a good article and I'm looking forward to reading more. However, I have to disagree with just a couple of points.

    First, the article claims "the most common acids used in acidification are Tartaric acid, Malic acid and citric acid." While all of these acids occur naturally in grapes (though citric only in trace quantities), most winemakers will only use tartaric for acidification - at least in red wines. Why? Malic acid is not generally desirable in red wines, with regard to flavor and long term stability. It's normally converted to Lactic acid through the process of malolactic fermentation. Citric acid, if metabolized by ML bacteria, is converted to acetic acid (aka vinegar), which is also not desirable.

    Second, "Enzymes are added to fermenting wine to help prevent the growth of bad yeasts." Sulfur dioxide, in the form of potassium metabisulphite is sometimes added during fermentation to stun spoilage yeasts. Enzymes serve a different purpose. Winemaking enzymes come in various forms, but the most common are pectinase or maceration enzymes, which aid in breaking down the grape skins and releasing color/flavor compounds. Pectinase also helps the wine fall clear by degrading pectin, which, if present, can cause a haze.

    Lastly, "Polysaccharides are added to promote the extraction of color, tannin, and flavoring compounds from the grape skins." Macerating enzymes are actually used for this purpose, not polysaccharides. Polysaccharides (Greek for "many sugars") are hard to explain, but can be thought of as chains of sugars, starches, cellulose, etc. Polysaccharides most often contribute to what we refer to as "mouthfeel." It should be noted that winemakers sometimes add inert yeast products to increase polysaccharide levels in the finished wine.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 1:19 PM


  • Don't forget what else is in your glass, unless you buy organic: pesticides and herbicides. More wine drinkers are becoming educated as organic wine sales are increasing 17% per year. Why buy organic veggies for your dinner then drink a wine laced w/ dangerous chemicals? It's not like they wash the grapes before crushing! Go organic, it's what's best for you and the earth. For a great list of organic and biodynamic wines, check out the results of the Organic Wine Competition at
    http://www.greenwinecomp.info/

    Jun 03, 2010 at 3:28 PM


  • Great basic information for all wine lovers-thanks for sharing with us!

    Jun 03, 2010 at 3:56 PM


  • Snooth User: ceitruadh
    87710 90

    great info all around.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 4:05 PM


  • Snooth User: stangel
    149208 2

    Thanks very much -- this kind of informative article is why I signed up for Snooth to begin with. Looking forward to the rest in the series!

    Jun 03, 2010 at 5:09 PM


  • Just a question to the forum, why portuguese wines don't have so much addictives compared to some new world wines, and some of them taste just wonderful like a white one that i've tried that was made with a Antao vaz grape variety, thanks

    Jun 03, 2010 at 5:24 PM


  • Snooth User: KNEEDRAG
    419174 5

    Unfortunately the article didn't hit upon the use of Mega-purple which has just about ruined California wines for me.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 5:53 PM


  • Snooth User: jamessulis
    Hand of Snooth
    426220 1,483

    Great article breaking down the various procedures,components and additives in wine which was both interesting and informative.
    Lets not pass up the weather variables that are required and showered down on the planet to make all of this possible. I give thanks to our Creator.
    I am a junior wine zealot being transformed into an intermediate junior by gathering all this wonderful information from Snooth.
    When the cork pops this information gels, sorts and downloads to my mind and palate when consuming a great tasting wine. All of it makes the experience of drinking wine an exceptional TREAT.

    Thanks Gregory,
    Lefty - The Great Pacific Northwest

    Jun 03, 2010 at 6:48 PM


  • Snooth User: zinfandel1
    Hand of Snooth
    154660 994

    I find the article very interesting and educational. I do, however, have a question on certified organic. Is there specific testing be an independent agency? If so, what happens to the wine if it fails the organic certification?

    Also, pesticides and herbacides can stay in the soil for years and years. Does this mean soil has to be removed to a certain depth and replaced with organic soil?

    I'm all for organic but I question whether it can be controlled and attained in a cost effective manner.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 8:05 PM


  • Using terms like "dirty truth" and "lurking" puts a negative connotation on products that have improved wine quality in a manner consumers prefer. As evidenced by their development, growth, and expanding use.

    At one time you might have said the same thing about "exotic spices from the Far East" (ie: pepper) for cooking. I doubt anyone would recommend a restaurant that had no form of spice “lurking” on their steak! "Its un-natural to have salt and pepper on your steak, its not what the Caveman used"

    Our understanding of wine, viticulture, and winemaking (including new fermentation products; cultured yeast and bacteria, nutrients, enzymes, polysacchrides, and so2) have improved a great many things about wine. To me the greatest achievement has been to significantly reduce the cost to have a much better quality wine. In the past a relative few might have been able to purchase the very best wines. This was because they were produced in such limited quantity (the old cycle of "it was a good year", "it was a bad year"). Through science we've mitigated many of the factors that create "a bad year", and improve the probability of producing "a good year". The outcome is the average person has routine access to large quantities of average price wines that are generally superior to many highly rated wines produced less than 25 years ago.

    I for one do not yearn for the bad "good old days" of all you need are "grapes and a bucket".

    I appreciate your effort to document the core elements of wine, and de-mystify a fabulous beverage. However please use other forums, and full disclosure, to pitch your personal view of what constitutes good winemaking.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 8:33 PM


  • To Russian River: I don't want to kick the "orgaic is better" beehive but statements like "drink a wine laced w/ dangerous chemicals" are simply not true. I'm all for free trade and playing on a level field. If the consumer likes the taste/price of your product they will buy it. You should not need to "sling mud" by casting unfounded doubts on other products you know nothing about. It only shows you either have a weak marketing plan or a product that's no better than the rest.
    Take the higher road, let the consumer decide with their nose, palate, and pocket book.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 8:48 PM


  • Snooth User: Andrew46
    Hand of Snooth Voice of Snooth
    445466 279

    Great article. Most of the details been cleaned up by SteveKroll and others.

    A few details: Acid also makes wine tart, along with making the mouth water. Tannins, along with related compounds are both astringent, as you describe, and bitter in taste. These are two related but separate sensations.

    I think that it is worth mentioning the main way in which white and red wines differ. Red wines have both acid and tannins (plus related compounds) to balance the sweet property of alcohol. In whites, tannins are deliberately kept to a minimum, so higher acid levels are needed to balance the alcohol.

    Also, Steve says:"Lastly, "Polysaccharides are added to promote the extraction of color, tannin, and flavoring compounds from the grape skins." Macerating enzymes are actually used for this purpose, not polysaccharides. Polysaccharides (Greek for "many sugars") are hard to explain, but can be thought of as chains of sugars, starches, cellulose, etc. Polysaccharides most often contribute to what we refer to as "mouthfeel." It should be noted that winemakers sometimes add inert yeast products to increase polysaccharide levels in the finished wine." In fact, polysaccharides are also added to red wine to icrease the retention and formation of fruit aromas.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 9:23 PM


  • To World of Wine: Read this article for starters:
    http://www.metroactive.com/papers/s...
    The report, "Time for a Change: Pesticides and Wine Grapes in Sonoma and Napa Counties," details pesticide use farm by farm, focusing solely on premium wine grapes. It relies on government documentation, such as pesticide-use reports supplied by growers to agricultural commissioners in each county, reports that are public information in California. "What emerges is a portrait of a lucrative industry heavily reliant on industrial poisons," Clary says.
    I'm not out to convince "consumers" to buy my product. I'm speaking out to inspire people to think about pesticide use and what it is doing to our water, soil and air. Anyone catch Toxic Towns on CNN last night? The facts are very scary, and here in bucolic "Wine Country" people need to know that vineyard chemical use is poisoning our streams and soil and causing damage to both the critters and the humans exposed.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 9:52 PM


  • Snooth User: tking535
    364227 3

    Great information. Very readable. I've always wanted to visit "the labs" at the wineries and get the lowdown on the chemical recipes. No such luck. I appreciate the added information found in the comments. Thanks one and all.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 10:28 PM


  • Have there been any studies of the downwind affect of rocket launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base on the Santa Ynez Valley wines? That's some pretty toxic stuff.

    Jun 03, 2010 at 10:45 PM


  • Snooth User: 32527
    494408 3

    Good article, but thankfully, you have sharp readers filling in details and corrections. The discussion is good and useful. As for additives, what about the use of Velcorin? Whether or not it is dangerous or not, improves wine or not, etc, etc, the bottom line is about labeling.
    I don't want an ugly label like required on food/nutrition labels, but I think old world, "organic", natural wines, (natural, non-innoculated yeasts), could continue with essentially current labels, and those who choose to "do stuff" or "add stuff" to their products should state so on the label and let the consumer decide if it is indeed a better product.
    I'm not a wine maker, but a chef and an wine lover and student of all things wine, and if wine makers think they need these things, they should feel free to use them, provided they are willing to acknowledge such on the label. Otherwise, it's like selling farm raised salmon, as wild. Sure, after cooking and plating, I can fool the majority of the people into thinking that they are eating, "fresh" (and by marketing association, wild) salmon, but the truth behind it is something less than honest and I just wish the wine industry would embrace it.
    Thanks again for the article.

    Jun 04, 2010 at 12:45 AM


  • Snooth User: 32527
    494408 3

    Good article, but thankfully, you have sharp readers filling in details and corrections. The discussion is good and useful. As for additives, what about the use of Velcorin? Whether or not it is dangerous or not, improves wine or not, etc, etc, the bottom line is about labeling.
    I don't want an ugly label like required on food/nutrition labels, but I think old world, "organic", natural wines, (natural, non-innoculated yeasts), could continue with essentially current labels, and those who choose to "do stuff" or "add stuff" to their products should state so on the label and let the consumer decide if it is indeed a better product.
    I'm not a wine maker, but a chef and an wine lover and student of all things wine, and if wine makers think they need these things, they should feel free to use them, provided they are willing to acknowledge such on the label. Otherwise, it's like selling farm raised salmon, as wild. Sure, after cooking and plating, I can fool the majority of the people into thinking that they are eating, "fresh" (and by marketing association, wild) salmon, but the truth behind it is something less than honest and I just wish the wine industry would embrace it.
    Thanks again for the article.

    Jun 04, 2010 at 12:46 AM


  • Snooth User: Gregory Dal Piaz
    Hand of Snooth Voice of Snooth
    89065 204,528

    Thanks to all for the comments, Steve's in particular.

    The comment on polysaccharides should have read that they were used to promote the retention of tannin, color, and flavoring compounds extracted from the grape skins. One word makes a big difference of course, but the point was that polysaccharides are used to add stability to these elements in wine

    I am off to a meeting momentarily but will return for me later in the day

    Jun 04, 2010 at 3:54 AM


  • Snooth User: ivano28
    428743 4

    Maybe "WorldOfWine" is so focused on sales that has lost his way.. I would not be surprised if one day he would come up with a standardized chemical solution to be dissolved into a bottle of water.. and hey, let people decide, if they like it we have no rights to say that wine is a different thing.. Scary..

    Jun 04, 2010 at 4:58 AM


  • Snooth User: ivano28
    428743 4

    Maybe "WorldOfWine" is so focused on sales that has lost his way.. I would not be surprised if one day he would come up with a standardized chemical solution to be dissolved into a bottle of water.. and hey, let people decide, if they like it we have no rights to say that wine is a different thing.. Scary..

    Jun 04, 2010 at 4:59 AM


  • Snooth User: ivano28
    428743 4

    Maybe "WorldOfWine" is so focused on sales that has lost his way.. I would not be surprised if one day he would come up with a standardized chemical solution to be dissolved into a bottle of water.. and hey, let people decide, if they like it we have no rights to say that wine is a different thing.. Scary..

    Jun 04, 2010 at 4:59 AM


  • America is in need of a "purity laws" type of food labeling system and product quality control system more like that used in Europe. Many of us consumers here in the US are simply tired of our food and beverage producers using anything they like in products with many of these ingredients, additives and and resulting byproducts having a detrimental impact on our health and the environment and not shown on the label. All products should either be thoroughly and completely labeled or the products should meet certain process and purity requirements by definition. We would already have these laws, rules and regulations if it weren't for the dollars flowing from both our food and beverage producers, and our chemical manufacturers into the pockets of our legislators and government officials. The lack of such laws rules and regulations is one of the primary reasons that America produces so few high quality food and beverage products, although this is changing. For wines, I would like to see far more informative labeling used world wide, you know, like percentage of grape varieties, anything genetically modified, any and all products used in or added to the wines, including all of those additives and enhancers discussed in the above posts. Wine makers should thoroughly label their wines as a matter of pride! Wine, like all food and beverage products, is more than simply about taste, hey it is going into our bodies, and therefore we should have the right to know what's in that which we are consuming, it is OUR bodies! If there is one thing that I have learned from my time spent in Europe it is that the European consumer focuses on quality while the American consumer focuses on value. Hence, a huge market for Europeans to export food and beverage products to the US and a relatively small return flow of American food and beverage products to Europe. As an example: Hersheys, the American consumers everyday chocolate choice; Toblerone the Europeans choice in everyday chocolate. We need to step it up. Let's follow the lead of our artisan cheese makers, they seem to be doing very well!!

    Jun 04, 2010 at 9:49 AM


  • Snooth User: 32527
    494408 3

    A loud echo on that! Well said halfbottle.

    Jun 04, 2010 at 10:12 AM


  • Snooth User: imaginous
    320005 1

    This is an incredible discussion about wines, foods and practices. It is all too true that change needs to occur. All in all we consumers vote with our $$$$$. I sure am trying. Lets hope the government starts listening!!!!!!

    Jun 05, 2010 at 4:38 PM


  • Snooth User: cbarrett4
    495619 1

    The use of pesticides is dramatically lower than in the past, but the restrictions to label a wine 'organic' are rather stringent. Plus, you have to be re-certified constantly and gain new label approval if there are any changes. Some producers also feel that labeling a wine 'organic' automatically puts it in the lower quality bracket. I know dozens of producers who grow and produce wine organically but only mention so if asked.

    Just because a wine is not organic, it does not mean it is chock full of poisons and toxins. You probably consume more pesticides from a non-organic apple or peach than from a glass of wine.

    Jun 05, 2010 at 5:43 PM


  • Snooth User: Andrew46
    Hand of Snooth Voice of Snooth
    445466 279

    cbarrett4,
    I generally agree with what you are saying. Some use the fact the wine is organic as the ONLY selling point. They produce low quality wines with no additives and ORGANIC is what sells them to the target market. However, what you refer to here: "I know dozens of producers who grow and produce wine organically but only mention so if asked." are most likely using certified organic grapes, but not organic wines. That is to say, they use added SO2 etc. like most winemakers who are focused on the quality of the wine. If you know of people who produce Organic Wine with nothing that is non-certified added and don't tout it, I'd like to know who they are.

    Jun 05, 2010 at 7:22 PM


  • Snooth User: Andrew46
    Hand of Snooth Voice of Snooth
    445466 279

    For the record, we purchase Organic grapes when possible and lobby our growers to use less synthetics.

    Jun 05, 2010 at 7:48 PM


  • Snooth User: Portinho
    485000 67

    great!
    thank you

    Jun 06, 2010 at 11:36 PM


  • Gregory,

    Wow, an amazing volume of reader responses! Since wine "science" actually is scientific, I guess you better have your future science articles "peer reviewed" before publication.

    How about providing a wine production flow chart for a typical CA red wine that shows all the steps and decision points where the wine making options occur?

    Jun 07, 2010 at 3:03 PM


  • Snooth User: Gregory Dal Piaz
    Hand of Snooth Voice of Snooth
    89065 204,528

    Hey JF, great idea, the flow chart, peer review I'll work on!

    It sounds like a rather big undertaking but look for it in the coming months.

    Thanks for the suggestion.

    Best

    Greg

    Jun 14, 2010 at 3:09 PM


  • Snooth User: syrah210
    153247 66

    it always amazes me how 'organic' can be twisted: it only means using no man made chemicals!
    the 'good old days of a bucket and grapes' also included using horse manure to fertilize farms. organic farmers still use chemicals!
    as for 'not washing grapes', has our russianriver friend ever heard of pre-harvest intervals? which by the way apply equally to 'organic' and non-organic farmers. This comments shows that you really do not know what you are talking about at all. All pesticide usage (including organic certified chemicals!) is FDA approved and controlled, i would much rather drink wine made from grapes grown with care and scientific methods and real passion, than blindly follow some misleading marketing driven stuff. you do not ever see anyone put on their bottles: we also have chemicals in here, it is just not man made!
    this forum is for wine lovers, not for touting your beliefs on organic farming, please take that somewhere else.

    Jun 14, 2010 at 7:37 PM


  • Snooth User: samy0108
    160973 6

    well we hve to respect all different point of view as we need all to make a world

    Jun 15, 2010 at 9:53 AM


  • Very interesting and informative.
    Thank you!

    Jun 15, 2010 at 11:24 PM


  • Snooth User: Pipis
    423011 2

    In New Zealand we grow "Sustainable Wine." This is an NZ Winegrowers certified process from the vineyard through to the winery/bottling/packaging.

    Basically it means that at harvest we have zero residue from the one or two non-organic sprays we use early in the season (bunch closure is the key).
    We follow many practices like only mowing between rows when necessary to facilitate vineyard work- and then only every second row to allow the healthy insect life to proliferate.
    In the wineries- not using strong chemicals to clean tanks- which really just allows the opportunistic 'bad microbes' to take over...

    This is an extensive, holistic, and logical process that allows us to produce high quality fruit and wines. Using loads of chemicals (and other interventions) creates an unhealthy system anywhere. Lets face it- its not natural for vines to grow in heavy density and be pruned every year!
    But using common sense guided by nature, with an occasional intervention that is mitigated by time intervals to allow cleansing, I think we are making sensible moves in the right direction.

    We are always moving toward organic/bio-dynamic ideals, but we are not actually working within a "natural framework," so lets not pretend that we are...

    Jun 28, 2010 at 6:09 PM


  • Snooth User: Slipstream
    Hand of Snooth
    172281 711

    Very nice little overview, Gregory. Thanks for that. To Russian River - you forgot to mention a couple of other good things about organic wines. They taste better, for one. Also, they are less likely to contain the sulfites that this occasional wine imbiber finds irritating. There is nothing quite like a nice taste of wine, followed a few minutes later by mild nausea and swelling of the mucous membranes. It usually disappears after a few minutes, but who needs it? This reaction almost never occurs when I have an organic wine.

    Jul 03, 2010 at 9:50 PM


  • And exactly where can I purchase a bottle of that ?

    Aug 04, 2010 at 5:19 PM


  • Snooth User: JonasVD
    555207 41

    Great article! I've just started appreciating wine, so for me this was an extremely helpful overview. Some interesting comments as well. Thanks Snooth!

    Aug 16, 2010 at 5:01 AM


  • Great article! N informative, Thank You

    Aug 18, 2010 at 12:10 PM


  • Snooth User: eddyhung
    436477 16

    Great!!
    Thank you~^^

    Sep 13, 2010 at 11:29 PM


  • Very informative, layperson comprehensive. Merci beaucoup, Mr. Diaz!

    Sep 16, 2010 at 4:39 AM


  • NICE!!! These basics are good to know!

    Sep 29, 2010 at 5:24 PM


  • Snooth User: jerwine
    133658 41

    I prefer my wine to be clean so I don't have to ingest chemical weed killer and pesticides. Many fabulous wines being produced that way these days. Healthier wine. Why not? other than poisoning oneself albeit in micro-doses but still toxic to body organs and cells.

    Sep 30, 2010 at 5:25 PM


  • Snooth User: mojilnf
    536798 10

    what do they mean when they say "full-bodied wine"?

    Oct 01, 2010 at 2:16 AM


  • Snooth User: chitski
    595705 11

    very informative. Thanks!

    Oct 01, 2010 at 10:24 AM


  • WOW....Another Great Article. I will tell you I am currently deployed in Iraq, and I read SNOOTH everyday. I have even added many to it and it sparks Great Discussion. I am an avid Wine Drinker, I am actually more of a Lusher. I dont go for the Label, or the Price. Im the knucklehead that buys arm fulls of various types and ponders wether I personally feel its worht remembering or not. I LOVE the articles on here.
    WIth that said, and I dont want to fuel a fire that should be destroyed, but this whole Organic issue should not even be a part of this discussion. This is about how wine is made, not about the grapes being all organic, YOU CANT TASTE THE DIFFERENCE!! Anyone interested in this very indepth study of WHy its really all a farse: http://www.frenchscout.com/organic-... Good info.
    Thanks for the wonderful topic and COnversations, you have made this past 15 months go FAST for me. 2 more and Im home in time to sip a nice Red with Mrs. Clause!! Woo Hoooo. GODSPEED.

    Oct 20, 2010 at 10:59 PM


  • Snooth User: ELBinLA
    616924 24

    Masonic, I want to buy you a glass when you get back stateside!

    Nov 04, 2010 at 1:00 PM


  • Great article. And this is a nice space. Thank you from Singapore = )

    Nov 09, 2010 at 10:06 AM


  • Snooth User: dcrc
    625399 1

    Hi, Anyone know where one can purchase an Almond wine besides a vineyard in PA, USA? Thanks.

    Nov 09, 2010 at 11:23 AM


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