Guide to Rhone Blends

Find out why blended wines are an integral part of history


I’ve been tasting a few Rhone style blends of as of late, and am looking forward to a small vertical of Chateau Beaucastel Chateauneuf-du-Pape covering the vintages 1995-2005 next week, a report on which will be coming soon.
 
With all these Rhone blends flying around, I thought this would be a good time to take a quick look at what each of the major varieties might bring to these blends.  A fair question might be, why are these wines blended? The easy answer is that the resultant wines are more complex than any component is on its own, and history probably plays at least as big a role.
 
Historically, many regions relied on a variety of grapes to produce their wine. Some were early maturing, others late; some were drought-tolerant, others dealt well with excess rain. The ultimate goal was not to be able to produce some exceptional blend each year, but rather to produce something each year. In this day and age of wine as a luxury item we tend to forget how little we are removed from wine as a staple. It was food and water, calories and a bright spot to otherwise difficult lives.

Rhone image via Shutterstock

Châteauneuf-du-Pape

Today things have changed and winemakers have the luxury of creating wines for a luxury market. The end result is blending to achieve the best possible outcome in any given vintage, but with man’s increasing control over nature and the raw materials, the blend itself has become the dominant player in the blending decision making process, particularly in Châteauneuf, where history has seen a wide range of grapes. While all are still allowed in the blend, they are whittled to one star Grenache, and many supporting players. So let’s start by reviewing Châteauneuf.
 
The Grand Vin of the Southern Rhone Valley, Châteauneuf is perhaps the quintessential blended wine. With 13 varieties of grapes allowed, 15 if you include both the light and dark skinned varieties of Grenache and Picpoul, each winemaker has the ability to craft a unique and distinct interpretation of the soils and climates of the region. While few producers use all or even most of the 13 varieties, most rely on Grenache to form the heart and soul of their wines. These are rather big and distinctly warm climate wines that are rich with alcohol. The tannins of Grenache are modest, so many of these wines require little aging to be enjoyed; yet many can improve over the course of a decade. Typically one finds rich strawberry and red cherry tones in Châteauneuf with complicating notes of herbs and lavender, frequently referred to as "garrigue". There are frequently notes of game, leather and tar, typical of Syrah and Mourvedre - two other important components of many wines.

Chateauneuf-du-Pape image via Shutterstock

Rhone Blends

Chateauneuf has served as the model for a virtual explosion of wines the world over that are loosely grouped together under the Rhone blend moniker, and it’s worth running through some of the big picture details of these wines before proceeding to the major grapes themselves.
 
Rhone Blends are generally based on Grenache, though some blends may be predominantly Syrah or Mourvedre. The fact that these wines are blends gives the winemakers unusual flexibility in creating a finished wine. In the Southern Rhone Valley of France, the styles can range from light, fruity, soft Cotes du Rhone to big, bold, age-worthy Chateauneuf-du-pape. This blend is also very popular in Australia and the United States where they frequently go by the Moniker GSM (Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre) and exhibit the rich, bold fruit that both countries are famous for.

Southern Rhone image via Shutterstock

Grenache

Grenache is the main grape in many Rhone blends and most Cotes du Rhone and Chateauneuf-du-pape. It's a grape that yields soft, lightly colored yet full wines, endowed with deep notes of strawberry and raspberry. While not prone to producing particularly rich or complex wines in France, Grenache is one of the world's most widely-planted grapes, producing unique expression wherever it is planted. It is particularly common in Spain as Garnacha, and in Sardinia as Canonnau.

Grenache image via Shutterstock

Syrah

One of the few grapes to really be a global success, Syrah combines a meaty core of ripe berry fruit with tones that range from herbal to peppery, in a package that tends to be medium-bodied with good acidity and softer tannins. With age, the wines can gain lovely leathery and black olive notes that make them a great match for savory and gamey dishes.

Syrah image via Shutterstock

Mourvedre

Though Mourvèdre is a grape with Spanish roots, where it is known as Monastrell, it is most closely associated with the South of France and the Bandol appelation in particular, where the grape produces rich, powerful wines that retain rustic tannins partnered with dark, wild berry flavors and gamey, leathery nuances. It is also commonly called Mataro in California.

Mouvedre image via Wikimedia Commons

Carignan

Carignan is a workhorse grape of France and Spain, its ancestral home, where it goes by Cariñena. It is getting renewed interest for its intense color, acid and tannins that it can add to a blend. It has been successful as a Rosé and is occasionally bottled on its own, but it remains primarily a blending wine.

Carignane image via Shutterstock

Cinsault

Cinsault has been widely planted throughout North Africa and the Mediterranean basin due to its affinity for a warm, dry climate. It produces wines with a soft texture, modest tannins and strong meaty, spicy and mineral aromas that accent its dark, strawberry toned fruit. It has historically been used as a blending grape.

Cinsault image courtesy of Allie_Caulfield via Wikimedia Commons
 

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Comments

  • Snooth User: jaybird75
    100123 100

    Boy, Greg, hate to say it, but was I disappointed.
    Not a word about whites! What's up with that?
    Really though, this is a much bigger topic than anyone can cover in one article, based on your title. A short article, at that.
    This article was about a few of the red wines grapes in the Rhone, and mostly just Southern rhone at that. You could have mentioned the Northern Rhone, it does exist. Mostly Syrah, some other grapes too. Wouldn't have hurt.
    But enough of the smart aleck.
    I have been wanting to dig more deeply into Rhone wines, but especially the whites! I had a white St. Joseph and it was terrific. (I'm not a fan at all of Viognier from anywhere.) I guess it's Marsanne (sp?) and other grapes in the North, but what about White Cote du Rhones? Same? Could you dig into that sometime? Do you like White Rhones?

    Jan 14, 2013 at 6:17 PM


  • Snooth User: Gregory Dal Piaz
    Hand of Snooth Voice of Snooth
    89065 204,464

    Hi Jaybird,

    I hear you, wrote all this about whites earlier last year http://www.snooth.com/articles/whit... and more! Producers to look for http://www.snooth.com/articles/top-...

    I'll write separately about Syrah, I just find the wines of the Northern Rhone to be so different, so much more wines of place that I don't even think of them in the same sentence as wines from the south!


    Jan 14, 2013 at 6:58 PM


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